What can be expected from AKT ?
AKT : Allgemeine Kosmos-Theorie
AKT is a cosmos model, focussing on a fundamental possibility, which didn’t get attention until now. The model assumptions create a picture of the universe with big explanation power. Being farer away from all day experience, at first sight it may look a bit strange. But things are falling on their place. Especially, AKT can describe processes in the micro-world and in the macro-world in the same language. AKT is a world model of one piece.
In first instance the approach was bottom up and wholly theoretical: ”What can be present in the black box? Which kind of smallest particles? How can they interact? What does that mean: attraction and repulsion?” With workable answers to these fundamental questions it is much easier to approach special questions. Now guidelines are present to conduct the research.
AKT explains mysteries of physics:
Dark Matter and ‘Gravitational Effects’
The gravity phenomenon is real. Stars are influencing each other. But ‘gravity forces’, going from star to star, don’t exist. It’s running another way round, not via any kind of ether, but in an understandable way. ‘Gravitational Effects’ are part of the happening, binding together events in space, extending through billions of light years. (AKT avoids the term ‘Gravitational Wave’, which implies a medium as ether, as water. AKT is no ether-theory.) Movement corrections of stars on their circle path have to do with these effects, coming from nearer by and from far away. Each region is recipiënt and source. High precision instruments in special co-ordination can detect these effects. ‘Gravitational Wave’ is a known term, a bit misleading, but the term is a hint on processes (on effects), which should be studied closely.
The processes follow the law of contraction and expansion, presented in its mathematical form in the full paper. This is an announcing paper.
AKT explains black holes
Black holes are an astronomic reality. Black holes (bh’s) play an important role in the AKT-model, in the AKT-astronomy. bh’s is given birth by special circumstances. A supernova explosion can create one of them: Matter in the pit is compressed by extreme pressure from all sides to a compact matter ball, a small black hole. The empty space between electron shells of an atom and atom nucleon disappears: a village disappears in a billiard-ball, a town in a tennis-ball, showing, that atoms consist out of nearly nothing, mainly out of empty space.
The billiard-ball must not be the end of possible compression. It can be a step between. The billiard-ball can be hollow also. The dense and heavy matter in it could have place in a pin-head. Or in less. Thus we can count on finding in the universe dense bh’s, super-dense and super-super-dense ones. That are theoretical possibilities.
Gravity, black holes and galaxies
We distinguish between 1. developing black holes, growing, invisible, but producing gravity effects, and 2. burning visible bh’s, (partly) vanishing, and 3. quasi stable bh’s, not burning and not growing for a long period.
After full development of a spiral star system, expansion ended, it begins to fall together under the influence of ‘gravity’. Whatever that is, ‘gravity’. (Explanation in the full paper.) It happens. The gravity phenomenon shows its presence. The potential energy of the system is transformed more and more into kinetic energy: the stars lower their distances and start circling quicker around each other. Under special circumstances, f.i. the pressure waves of a supernova-explosion near to the center of the system, or the shock waves of two nearly simultanous supernova-explosions opposite of each other in relation to the center, the central stars of the spiral, exposed to the biggest gravity forces, fall directly in each other, forminng a black hole, a dense spinning ball of nucleons with the momentum of the collapsed merry-go-round of stars. More central stars follow, composing a bigger bh. This black hole begins to divorce star after star, getting a really big black hole.
The initial amount of potential energy, now transformed into kinetic energy, focussing in a center place, has to be so large that the matter-bodies are pushed in each other, that circling around each other eternally, conserving their kinetic energy in this form for ever, is no option. The ‘collaps-pressure’ must be great enough to form a black hole and to let it grow to a certain bigness.
The high and growing momentum of the black hole creates places of more and less pressure inside the bh, and matter streams from places of high to places of less pressure: it creates two whirls, meeting under very high pressure near the center, then streaming under releasing pressure to the place of the lowest pressure. That is along the axis of the spinning bh-ball. Along the axis the two whirls stream from the center in different directions upwards to the surface to turn there, streaming in a curve down again to the place of highest pressure. A growing bh! At a certain stage of bigness the pressure in the center exceeds a critical limit and the black hole begins to get active the other way round, another side of the gravity phenomenon. Big black holes develope 2 huge matter streams, leaving the ball at opposite sides at later stages in their life. In physics of today the only known way, how bh’s can vanish, is by Hawkins radiation. And that takes, very unrealistic, 1067 years of time! AKT however comes with an explanation, how bh’s can dissolve in much shorter time. Perhaps in 103 years, first estimation. (We need to collect the right parameters and shall calculate the time period later). In the AKT-model the 2 streams play an important role. In the AKT-model the observable 2 big matter streams are coming out of the center of the bh with very high velocity. They are a direct part of the gravity phenomenon. AKT offers a mathematical description of the processes.
Via Hubble we can find burning black holes, then clearly visible, but not so many. There have been many, but the clearly visible part of their lifetime is short. The creation process of galaxies and their first phase of rapid expansion is much shorter than the following processes of slow expansion (F ~ 1/r2) and the reverse collapse. Therefore we encounter in our small observation window a lot of galaxies and only few burning black holes emitting more than Hawkin’s radiation. But when we look for gravity effects, there is reason to postulate the existence of big invisible masses in the middle of galaxies: black holes. The behaviour of central stars, visible burning suns, rotating with a certain velocity around the center, indicate the existence of condensed matter, the existence of a black hole in the middle. The rotation velocity makes it possible to calculate the bh-mass, according to Newton’s gravity law.
In the AKT-model the bigness of the central black hole is fluctuating.
Short before the black hole starts burning, it reaches its maximum. And then it becomes a clearly visible matter-ball, with 2 hot light emitting arms.
Via Hawkins radiation, emitted from the shell, some bh’s are visible a bit, if not too far away and if in a good position, no bright stars in the same direction. The Hawkins radiation is not intense enough to find and to count them all. And not enough —before all— to judge them.
What is happening there? Which types of bh’s exist? All with the same density? Or can we find bh’s, looking small, but being giants because of the density of their mass? We think in possibilities to decide later, which possibility is the most probable, to be measured by the ulna of the facts.
What happens when a black hole has grown to a critical mass? The pressure in the center, where the two whirls meet each other, reaches a degree, that the nucleons, being as hollow as atoms, collapse to smaller units, swallowing giant energy amounts each. Then they pass through to the axis, the place of less pressure. There the reverse process starts. The units release their energy while forming nucleons again, accellerating the particle masses along the axis to high velocities in direction surface. In effect, the axis forms two guns, shooting in opposite directions. In the middle, between them, in the era of highest pressure, additional gun powder is produced now. Packages of nucleons, streaming from the side into the gun tubes, are the bullets, the expanding units are the gun powder. The bullets are teared up with increasing velocity, they reach such immense velocities, that they are able to leave the black hole, and not alone this, they are also able to reach the outer space, millions of light years away, where they arrive as hot islands, as hot light emitting fogs.
Important to note is, that - as soon as they have left the bh via the axis, while the axis is slowly rotating, they are travelling on an inertial path, on a ray into the outer space. Further packets of matter, being ejected later, are travelling on another ray, near to the first, and all together in such a way, that our teleskops see the groups of light emitting hot packets of matter as a curved arm on the one side, and a corresponding curved arm on the other side, bowed in opposite direction. The birth process of the bowed arms lets us directly understand their form. As far as known here, AKT is the first theory, which can explain the two bowed arms of a young galaxy.
Let us fix here: huge matter packets, surely containing some whirls, don’t rotate around the bh, but are running straight away. Stars, born in these packets, don’t rotate around the bh neither.
Finally the ejected masses, on their billion years lasting journey condensed to stars and star-systems, are braked by the weak gravity forces. Now they have potential energy and begin to fall together again, but slowly: F ~ 1/r2. While the building up processes of a galaxy run quick, the reverse processes run slowly. Therefore astronomers observe more collapsing galaxies than young growing ones, those blowing up, hot fogs with still few young blue stars inside them.
Calculation will show, that the axis of a producing and sluicing black hole shifts in the process, so that the typical spiral is formed, one arm bowed to the one and the other to the other side, and both arms the most in line in the middle, the elongation of the two shooting gun tubes in their last position. That’s the appearance of a young galaxy.
The gravity force is said to be the weakest of all forces. But that is not true. It is the weakest and the strongest of all forces, not alone responsible for the collapse of a star system, but responsible for its creation also. The weak force, described by Newton, is responsible for the brake– and collapse-processes, the strong force, here described first, is responsible for the ejection-process. The law in its mathematical form is presented in the full paper.
As long as more stars are swallowed by the hole, keepimg the ball growing, the sluice activities are going on. After the supply has stopped, nearly all old stars of the galaxy guzzled, while the bh still possesses powder, it keeps sluicing and shrinking. How far can it shrink? Can it fabricate enough gun powder to shrink to the half volume of the start position? Or even to null and vanish totally? Open question!
Here we have to immitate the dynamics of a black hole in the computer, with all parameters. Or we must observe the centers of galaxies. What is present there? Calculation or observation! Computer calculation with all laws necessary and all parameters necessary is not yet done, but astronomic observations are done, indicating a bh-mass in nearly each galaxy-center . Thus we can conclude, that a big black hole will not burn out fully. All its powder burned, it will stop and rest, waiting a lifetime of a galaxy, some 109 years, until the masses, shot into the far space, return via the weak arm of gravity, in order to guzzle them again, starting burning again, oscillating in this way.
Black holes are the big destroyers and creators, the big renewers, swallowing cold and forming hot galaxies according to the law of contraction and expansion, which will be formulated in the original AKT-paper. This here is an announcing paper: ‘What can be expected from AKT’. In the original AKT-model traditional terms as ‘behaviour’ of stars, of particles, of matter, which are not sharp, are exchanged with sharp terms, meeting the point.
Under the collaps-pressure the bulk of the stars of a galaxy is swallowed by its black hole. However always is it possible, that some bright suns, being visible by Hubble, can escape the guzzling bh for some time, for some hundred million years, by rotating around the bh in a sure distance. As long as the rotation energy is not diminished, f.i. by a crash with a rotating sun, coming from opposite direction, it will not fall into the bh, but will go on rotating. Astronomers can use them to calculate the mass of the bh. The history of such suns: born in the outer space out of hot fogs, on their ray braked to v=0, fallen back on the ray towards the center, caught by the bh, the straight line path bowed into a circle path around the bh. The AKT-prediction is: such circling stars ar always old stars, proven by the spectral lines of their light, never young blue stars.
Newtons gravity description is a dead-world-description: matter is falling together, concentrating in rotating star systems in small places, and at the end in black holes, with no way back. A tiny exception, the Hawkins radiation at the ‘surface’ of bh’s, allows a way back only for small parts. Out of the center of a black hole no light ray can escape! If this would be the whole story, because of the length of time all matter would already be concentrated, the end of each movement: a dead world.
Nevertheless: Newton is a hero. He described a first part of the gravity phenomenon. We are standing on his shoulders.
The spiral fogs and spiral star systems as the melk way, some of them still expanding, some falling together, are a direct part of the gravity phenomenon. The whirling collapse movements are mirrored in whirling expansion movements of the two beams, creating whirling galaxies. The universe consists of oscillating systems, not of dead islands.
So far black holes and galaxies.
Black holes and the theorem, that the world will end in a thermal death
The theorem predicting the thermal death of the universe, is another assumption, which is burned inside of black holes. The theorem is wrong, valid only in a limited time window. The assumption is: heat is spreading steadily, heat energy is flowing from hot places to colder places, until everything is at the same temperature. This dead-world-scenario is burned in black holes: black holes are creating giant amonts of heat, swinging them via two ultrahot matter streams into space, starting the cyclus of getting hotter (inside bh’s) and getting colder (outside bh’s) again. As long as the processes inside bh’s are not in the observation window, each final conclusion is doomed to failure.
So we see, that all temperature phenomena are linked with the gravity phenomenon. The sum of all energy in a big astro-system is constant, but the spread of that energy is not constant: it is oscillating. In the state of widest extension of the system the kinetic energy is the lowest, combined with lowest temperatures and the widest distribution of equal temperatures, combined with the greatest potential energy in regard to the gravity phenomenon. Then the situation changes. The great potential energy is transformed by gravity more and more in kinetic energy, combined with (slowly) raising temperatures and more concentration of warm masses (stars with hot pits and burning suns). In the last phase of collapse a dramatic concentration of masses occur, inside black holes, combined with a dramatic increase in temperature, combined with a dramatic increase in heat concentration (against the thermal-death- assertion of thermodynamics). When concentration has reached its peak, and even a period before, the bh’s start to blow off ultrahot fogs, to sluice ultrahot matter islands into the empty space, over distancies of many light years. There distribution of heat, there cooling processes can start again.
Continue here ! Below also: AKT explains the nature of light
Please criticize the new world model as sharp as possible! We want it to go through the fire of expert checks.